Category Archives: Nutrition

Types of Dog Foods

There are four types of dog foods: canned, dry, semi-moist and raw. To a certain extent, the type of dog food determines which ingredients can be included in the ration, as well as the ultimate cost. Let’s look at each of the choices individually.

Canned Diets

Nature's Variety Canned Dog FoodCanned diets are sometimes referred to as “wet” or “moist.” There’s a good reason for this – they contain about 75 percent water. These are the common varieties of dog food that line the shelves in grocery stores and pet supply outlets. The percentage of water may seem excessive, but this is not significantly different than the amount of water present in fresh meat or in living animals. It may seem that the water content is designed to provide more filling than nutrients, but there is a reason for this. All canned foods are sterilized by high-pressure steam. The high water content is needed to ensure adequate and uniform heat penetration without burning some areas while inadequately cooking others.

Most meats used in canned foods are ground while they are still frozen. This helps reduce bacterial contamination of the product while promoting efficient grinding. The meat is then mixed with ground cereal, chopped vegetables and micronutrients. It is interesting to note that, for the most part, manufacturers discount the nutritional value of the ingredients and add vitamin and mineral “premixes” to the ration to meet the actual nutritional requirements of dogs. So, despite all the advertising hype of the nutritional value of the ingredients used in a dog’s food, most manufacturers concede that the processing removes much of the wholesomeness and goodness of the ingredients.

The “maintenance” diets are formulated with one-third meat and two thirds cereal, while the “luxury” or “gourmet” diets usually mix two-thirds meat with one third cereal. Even the so-called “all-meat” rations usually have about 10 percent carbohydrates. At this stage, some ingredients are “cold processed” by loading the ingredients directly in the can. Other manufacturers first heat the mixture to about 180 degrees F., which may produce colors and flavors, inactivate enzymes, and cause controlled swelling of starches. The canned ingredients are then sealed and loaded into a pressure cooker and processed.

Dry Foods

Dry foods, often referred to as “kibble,” were the first dog foods available commercially. Although they were originally baked on sheets and broken into pieces by a kibbling roller, this process has been replaced by extrusion. Extrusion uses pressure heating and steam cooking to treat the cereal-based product. The usual ingredients for these extruded dry foods include a source of protein (soybean meal, meat, fish, or poultry meal) and a carbohydrate (corn, wheat, barley, fat and vitamins and minerals).

To make dry foods, the ingredients are mixed together and steam heat is added to begin the cooking process. Later, the ingredients are removed to a pressure cooker and the finished product gets extruded and cut into appropriate pieces. At the final stage, the “kibble” can be sprayed with hot fats to increase palatability. The moisture content of these foods is reduced to about one percent by the use of hot air drying. Most extruders have a limitation in the fat content of the ration (8-10 percent) for mechanical reasons, but newer, twin-screw extruders can actually create a high-fat, dry dog food, (30 to 40 percent fat). Even with the old extruders, the fat content can be increased by overspraying the dry food once it is removed from the barrel of the extruder.

Dry Dog Food

Semi-moist Foods

Semi-Moist Dog FoodSemi-moist dog foods are intermediate between the dry and canned foods in their moisture content. These are the products that often look like hamburgers made for dogs, containing 25 – 35 percent water. It is hard to get much reliable information about semi-moist processing, because pet-food companies still regard this as a closely guarded trade secret. The trick to making a semi-moist dog food is to create a ration that isn’t canned, that contains appreciable moisture, that has a long shelf life, and that is not subject to mold growth. To accomplish this, “humectants” are added to the ration that allows the food to be “moist” yet bind the water so it is inaccessible to microbes. The most common humectants are glycols, sucrose (table sugar), and phosphoric acid.

Raw Dog Food

Raw dog food diets are controversial. But the popularity of the diets — which emphasize raw meat, bones, fruits, and vegetables — is rising.

Raw Dog FoodRacing greyhounds and sled dogs have long eaten raw food diets. Extending those feeding practices to the family pet is a more recent idea, proposed in 1993 by Australian veterinarian Ian Billinghurst. He called his feeding suggestions the BARF diet, an acronym that stands for Bones and Raw Food, or Biologically Appropriate Raw Food.

Billinghurst suggested that adult dogs would thrive on an evolutionary diet based on what canines ate before they became domesticated: Raw, meaty bones and vegetable scraps. Grain-based commercial pet foods, he contended, were harmful to a dog’s health.

Raw dog food diet: What it is

A raw dog food diet typically consists of: Muscle meat, often still on the bone, bones, either whole or ground, organ meats such as livers and kidneys, raw eggs, vegetables like broccoli, spinach, and celery, apples or other fruit, some dairy, such as yogurt.

People Food / Table Food (Raw & Cooked)

Homemade Dog Food

We hear quite often “do not ever feed your dog table food.” What should be said is, “Do not feed your dog from the table.” If you feed your dog from the table you will be training your dog to beg for food at the table, which may be offensive and inappropriate especially when we have guests. However; it is appropriate to supplement a dog’s daily ration with healthy left over table food. We would not suggest feeding such foods as Doritos, onions, grapes, raisins or chocolate but left over eggs, meats, fish, skins, green beans, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli leaves and stems mixed in with their daily ration can be very healthy for your dog. Ensure you google search a list of unhealthy foods for dogs. One of our recommendations to keep your dog healthy is to keep a Tupperware container in your refrigerator and place healthy people food (leftovers) into that container, then mix your dog’s normal daily ration, being dry, moist or raw then as a special treat, feed them that mixture. If you want eating to be more challenging, stuff this mixture into a Kong and have your dog mentally work to get its meal. This form of feeding stimulates a dog’s mind, an excellent problem solver for your dog. There is nothing wrong with periodic healthy table food supplementation. Feeding your dog from the table will create a table beggar.

We also suggest researching the ingredients in your dog’s food to determine if they are optimal ingredients for your dog. More on this subject next month.

Visit for a list of foods that are dangerous to dogs.


“Canine Nutrition. What Every Owner, Breeder, and Trainer Should Know” – Lowell Ackerman, D.V.M.

“Raw Dog Food Diets” – WebMD Pet Health Feature – Elizabeth Lee – Reviewed by Audrey Cook, BVM&S

Jeff Woods, CPDT-KA

General Guidelines for Selecting a Dog Food

General Guidelines for Selecting a Dog Food

Good nutrition is probably the most important contribution you can make to your dog’s good health. Providing a wholesome diet will help keep your dog at an optimal weight, give a strong immune system, and help hold off diseases associated with aging, such as diabetes and cancer. Plus avoiding chemical and toxins will ensure your friend’s optimal health for years to come. With so many choices available it is easy to become confused.

What’s the best food for your pet? In this area it is a general rule of thumb and the old adage “you get what you pay for”. You can’t expect to pay hamburger prices for fillet mignon. It’s the quality of ingredients that set the top quality food apart.

Any dog food that you choose should be deemed adequate on the basis of feeding trials for your dog’s stage of life. The criteria have been proposed by AAFCO in the United States and CVMA in Canada. These are not foolproof criteria but are the best options available.

The essential and minimal “complete and balanced” is regulated by the Association of American Feed Control (AAFCO) a private advisory board whose members are from various government agencies. They have two tests; a food trail of feeding the food to only eight animals for 26 weeks monitoring their condition through-out and the second test is a chemical analysis in which the testing does not prove that the nutrients contained in these unregulated quality of ingredients can actually be absorbed by the body.

The feeding trials proposed by AAFCO are not ideal for many reasons. Typically, they include only a few animals and don’t take into consideration large breeds or very small breeds. There is also some concern that the trials don’t run long enough. For example, a growth feeding trial for puppies may end by four to five months of age, yet the pups continue to grow after this time. Also, the growth-related nutritional disturbances will probably not be detectable by this time

These trials are also relatively lax in their expectations. They consider a gestation/lactation trial successful if two-thirds of the females evaluated lose no more than 15 percent of their body weight by weaning. How about the one-third that lose even more? Ideally, females should return to their optimal weight by weaning if their nutritional status has been well maintained.

The claim that a pet food is 100% complete means that the food, even though it may have poor quality ingredients, meets AAFCO’s standards and it has accepted the food as a complete and balanced diet.

Even with these shortcomings, the AAFCO feeding trials are better than nothing and are far superior to relying on National Research Council (NRC) requirements alone. Click the links for more information on AAFCO and California Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA).

Now it’s up to the manufacturing company to produce a cute advertising campaign and a nutritious looking label that makes their food very appealing to the consumer to purchase. It is more economic and sexy for dog food companies to put their dollars into the marketing than into the quality of each individual ingredient. Don’t let pictures and adjectives on labels influence your selection; look at the ingredients list first, then research what each of those ingredients actually is.

Don’t try to compare dog foods on the basis of protein content. The percentage of protein in the diet is only a reflection of what is needed to supply essential amino acids. Additional protein only turns to fat or gets excreted in the urine. Don’t be fooled It is the quality of the protein provided, not the quantity, that makes the real difference in a dog food.

Pay attention to the ingredient list, even though it is hard to predict quality based on the terms used. For a canned product, there should be at least one animal-based protein source in the first two ingredients listed. For dry foods, an animal-based protein source should be one of the first three ingredients. This is a good clue as to how appropriately the diet has been formulated, because animal –based protein sources contain a better balance of essential amino acids. If meat or poultry meal is listed first on the label but the grains have been sub-categorized (e.g., cornmeal, kibbled corn, flaked corn), it is safe to assume that the manufacturer is trying to sell you a cereal-based diet but wants you to pay the price of a meat-based diet.

If vegetables or grains such as corn, wheat, rice, barley or soybeans are listed first on the ingredients list on the dog food bag, they may well be a source of protein, which you usually find in the lower economic brands of dog food.

Too much meat in the diet is not desirable, either. In dry dog foods, it is impossible to overload on meat because of the technological process involved. For canned foods, however, high meat content means low calcium. It also means that meat is providing most of the calories when a digestible carbohydrate would do a better and safer job. When canned foods contain a high percentage of meat, the companies must add calcium supplement to guard against calcium/phosphorus imbalance. Too high of a mineral concentration (ash) is also not good and probably implies that the ration contains a lot of bonemeal and poor-quality protein sources.

Buy commercial dog foods manufactured by a well-respected company that has contributed substantially to nutritional research in pets. These companies have the most to lose by distributing an inferior product because they have a reputation to protect. Fad diets and manufacturers will come and go, but the dog-food companies that intend to be around will be the ones most concerned with adequate nutrition.

    How to Select a Good Quality Dog Food

  • Don’t compare food on the basis of protein content. It is the quality, not the quantity, of protein that counts.
  • In a canned food, at least one of the first two products listed should be animal-based protein; one of the first three ingredients in a dry food.
  • Select a food by a major company that has conducted substantial research into pet nutrition.
  • Select foods that use higher quality ingredients.
  • Select the correct formulated diet for your pet’s age.
  • Learn how to read ingredient labels and guaranteed analysis labels.

Misty Pines carries three top quality diets; Nature’s Variety, Fromm and Chicken Soup for the Soul, which are providers of high quality foods in dry, canned and raw food diets. Puppies enrolled in the Misty Pines training program may receive a free 4lb bag of Fromm Heartland Gold puppy food and may bring in their empty bag as their coupon to receive another complimentary 4lb bag of food.

Start your puppy early on the road to health with quality diets found at Misty Pines.

Next month’s article: “Types of Dog Food.”

Top 5 Winter Nutrition Tips For A Healthy Dog

by By Amy Shojai of

Give Your Dog What They Need This Winter

Winter signifies more than just a change of season. It also signifies a change in your dog’s daily diet. Many pet parents are unaware the importance of switching up their dog’s nutritional regimen this time of the year. Let us here at PetCareRx help you keep your dog healthy during the winter months.

When winter rolls around dogs, like their owners, may change exercise and eating habits because of the weather. In fact, It takes more calories to keep dogs warm in chilly temperatures. And while some dogs enjoy wearing sweaters and eating bigger meals, others hate dress up. Small breed dogs often have trouble munching enough nutrition to stay healthy.

At the other end of the spectrum, dogs can turn into couch-potatoes when they get less exercise. Less exercise translates into more poundage, and a fat dog is not healthy. Here are 5 winter nutrition tips to help your dog stay healthy.


For dogs that spend a lot of time outside, increase the amount of food they eat. You can do this by switching from one meal a day to two or even three small servings. Adding a drizzle of warm, no-salt chicken broth to dry food often increases food intake by about 10 percent, or feeding a puppy ration to adult dogs can increase the calories. Or simply change the food to a more calorie dense “super premium” food that is the equivalent of canine rocket fuel.


When your dog has a poundage problem during the winter, reducing the amount of food can keep their waist trim. This may be as simple as curbing the treats, or switching to healthier low-calorie treats instead. You will need to measure the amount of food you put in the bowl, and meal-feed instead of filling up the buffet for all day grazing.


You also can switch pudgy pooches to a weight reducing food. Like humans, weight loss in dogs must be gradual and dogs won’t enjoy the process if they’re hungry all the time. Be aware that different brands won’t have the same amount of calories and that a “diet” food from one might even have MORE calories than the “regular” food from another brand. A diet food can only be counted on to have less calories compared to that same brand’s “regular” diet.


Most commercial dog foods provide claims that they are “complete and balanced” for a dog’s specific life stage. But some dogs still benefit from a supplement that helps them with digestion, for example, or that aids with creaky arthritic knees. Consider glucosamine or chondroitin supplements if your dog’s joints could use an extra boost.


It’s great to adjust your dogs’ diet during the winter to help them get the best nutrition possible. But switching the diet too abruptly can lead to diarrhea or vomiting, or simply prompt your pooch to snub the bowl. Instead, offer new foods slowly. Mix the new with the old food 50/50 for the first several days, and then gradually increase the new and decrease the old. Do this over a period of a week to ten days to reduce the chance of problems.


Is Pumpkin Good For My Pet?

by Valerie Trumps of

Your Halloween pumpkins may get an interested sniff from dogs and cats, but can they eat it without having a negative impact on their health? While raw pumpkin is not ideal for cat or dog (or human!) consumption, canned and cooked fresh pumpkin, along with pumpkin seeds, can be a healthy addition to their diet.

Pumpkin Health Benefits, Inside and Out

This nutrition powerhouse is great for people and can have a variety of health benefits for pets when given in small doses. Here are some:

Urinary Tract Support: Veterinarians believe that the oils contained in the seeds and flesh of pumpkins support urinary health in dogs and cats. Anyone whose pet has had kidney or bladder stones (or the horror of both) can attest to how much suffering they cause your pooch or kitty. Regularly adding pumpkin to your pet’s diet can help avoid this painful condition.

Regular Digestion: Our furry friends need fiber to stay regular just like we do, and pumpkin is a great source for pets and their parents. Its benefits go both ways – diarrhea as well as constipation can be eliminated with just 1 or two tablespoons of plain pumpkin, not sweetened or spiced, fed to your pet daily until the condition has cleared. Base the amount given on your pet’s size.

Furballs: The fiber in pumpkin can help move furballs along through your cat’s digestive tract and into the litter box, rather than hacked up onto the carpet. Over a period of time, regularly including about a teaspoon a day of pumpkin in your cat’s diet will also help prevent the formation of new furballs. Try giving it to her right out of the can – most felines enjoy the flavor and will eat it plain. But if she turns up her nose at it, mix it with a small amount of canned food and watch it disappear.

Skin and Coat: The antioxidants and essential fatty acids contained in pumpkin seeds help moisturize your pet’s skin and fur from the inside out. Although they may enjoy slurping down the fresh, slimy version, most pets prefer them toasted. Spread seeds evenly onto a baking sheet, lightly coat with cooking oil, roast in a 375-degree oven for 5 or 10 minutes, and cool before serving one or two as a daily treat. Leftover seeds should be stored in an airtight container.

Parasites: Tapeworms and other intestinal parasites become paralyzed by cucurbitin, an amino acid in pumpkin seeds that acts as a natural de-worming agent. The most effective way to prepare seeds for this purpose is by grinding up fresh or properly preserved pumpkin seeds into a powder. Give your cat or dog 1 teaspoon three times a day, mixed into a marble-sized portion of canned food and given as a treat. You can sprinkle it on your pet’s food at mealtime instead, but doing so runs the risk of the full dosage not being consumed each time it’s administered.

Nutrition: Pumpkin flesh and seeds are loaded with beta-carotene, vitamin A, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, and zinc. They also contain antioxidants, which may prevent some cancers from forming and help your pet stay healthy and young. Just don’t overdo the portion sizes, since minerals like iron and fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A can accumulate to unhealthy, even toxic, levels. A teaspoon or two per day is plenty.

Weight Loss: Obesity is a common issue that is just as dangerous for animals as it is for humans. If your pooch or kitty can stand to drop a few pounds, mix some soaked dry kibble with a tablespoon of canned pumpkin. The mushy kibble makes them think they’re eating more, the pumpkin fiber helps their tummy feel full, and they’ll enjoy the new taste treat.

The Best Ways to Buy and Cook Pumpkin

Unfortunately, pumpkin by itself is not a commercial baby food flavor; it’s usually mixed with sweet potatoes. So it’s not a good idea to feed this form of pumpkin to your pet, however tempting the small jars may be to reduce waste from leftovers. The typical 15-ounce can in which pumpkin is packed contains 29 tablespoons – obviously too much for one pet (or even two) to consume within a week. So, unless your pet family is particularly large or you have many other pet parents with whom to share your pumpkin bounty, a significant amount will end up in the garbage unless the extra is dealt with.

The best way to store leftover canned pumpkin is in the freezer since it will only last a week in the refrigerator. Scoop your canned pumpkin into an ice cube tray, freeze, and pop out the cubes into a freezer bag. Thaw one out when you need it, mix with a spoon to blend any separation of water, and refrigerate the leftover pumpkin cube to serve at your pet’s next meal. If you don’t want to retrieve pumpkin cubes from the freezer every other day, count out a week’s worth of servings into small freezer containers. Put them into the freezer and take out one container at a time to thaw and serve to your pet throughout the week.

Benefits Of Carob

Carob is a plant in the pea family (a legume), and is often used today as a substitute for chocolate. The carob plant as we know it today is originated in the Mediterranean over 4,000 years ago. Ancient civilizations like the Egyptians and ancient Greeks highly valued not only sweetness of Carob, but the nutritional benefits the plant bestowed. It was so highly valued, that the word carat comes from measuring a gemstone’s weight in comparison to the carob seed.

Records show that carob was intentionally introduced into the United States in 1854, and the first seedlings were apparently planted in California in 1873. For commercial production cultivars with the finest quality fruits are bud grafted on common stock.

Carob grows well anywhere that citrus is grown, and it prefers dry climates that receive more than 30 centimeters of rainfall–ideal mediterranean-type climates.

The fruit of carob is a pod, technically a legume 15 to 30 centimeters in length and fairly thick and broad.

Pods are borne on the old stems of the plant on short flower stalks. Interestingly, most carob trees are monoecious, with individual male and female flowers.

The dark-brown pods are not only edible, but also rich in sucrose (almost 40% plus other sugars) and protein (up to 8%).

Carob contains antioxidants, fiber, and is rich in calcium and phosphorus which helps fight osteoporosis. Benefits of Carob also include gallic acid, which has been used to prevent or treat polio in children. Gallic acid is a tannin, has anti viral, anti fungal, and antibacterial qualities. Carob is rich in vitamin E, which helps stave off influenza. Carob also aids in digestive health, lowers cholesterol, and can help people regulate their body weight. It is non allergenic, gluten-free, does not contain caffeine or theobromine (both found in chocolate), and can be used as a 1:1 replacement for chocolate in recipes. It’s important to note that carob does not taste exactly like chocolate–it is typically used because of the brown color, which has an impact on how your food tastes. It can be found in any health food store, and is fairly inexpensive.

Moreover, the pod has vitamin A, B vitamins, and several important minerals. They can be eaten directly by livestock, but we know carob mostly because the pods are ground into a flour that is a cocoa substitute.

Although this product has a slightly different taste than chocolate, it has only one-third the calories (total 1595 calories per pound), is virtually fat-free (chocolate is half fat), is rich in pectin, is nonallergenic, has abundant protein, and has no oxalic acid, which interferes with absorption of calcium.

Consequently, carob flour is widely used in health foods for chocolate-like flavoring.

Apart from the health benefits obtained by subsituting Carob for Cocoa and synthetic sweeteners in our diet, Carob also has excellent nutritional value. Along with up to 80% protien, it contains Magnesium, Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium Manganese, Barium, Copper, Nickel and the vitamins A, B, B2, B3, and D. It also has medicinal uses including the treatment of coughs and diarrhoea.

Carob pods are dried or roasted and ground into powder, which is the form it is typically found in–besides carob chips, which often contain additives and oils. Carob has a sweet, slightly bitter, earthy flavor and has been used by cultures around the world for its flavor and healing properties. Locust beans are the seeds of the Carob plant, and locust bean gum is a common food additive as a thickening agent.

Carob has become an important part of the gourmet pet treat industry with many treat makers using it as a coating and ingredient in many of their treats. With Halloween and the holiday season right around the corner we often find it tempting to share our sweet treats with our dogs but instead, get them their own goodies so when you’re indulging in some chocolatey goodness and they give you the sad eyes you can stroll over to their cookie jar and get them a safe alternative that they’ll love.

Stop in to Misty Pines and find all of our gourmet pet treats from Furrever Friends, Tail Bangers and more.

Information courtesy of: &


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